The Pretoria Regional Delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross together with the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa and the Centre for Human Rights of the University of Pretoria will be presenting the eighteenth All Africa Course on International Humanitarian Law between 25 January and 05 February 2021. The online course is a comprehensive introduction to the law of armed conflict and contemporary issues in International Humanitarian Law (IHL).
With legal support from the Sterling Centre for Law & Development, the families of West African migrants assisted by ANEKED, filed complaints on November 18 against the governments of Ghana and The Gambia before the ECOWAS Community Court of Justice for infringing several international human rights, including the right to judicial remedies.
As in any branch of international law, examining the meaning of a law of armed conflict (LOAC) term, and its incorporation in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, should look first to the treaties—and “attack” is no different. Indeed, as is well known, the notion of “attacks” is explicitly defined in Article 49 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I as “acts of violence against the adversary, whether in offence or in defence.” A seemingly broad definition, it is certainly clear and concise. One might thus be tempted to end an inquiry of the law there.
In March 2009, Commission Chair Justice Kayode Eso presented a 571-page report to Governor Amaechi, which has yet to be made public.
The aim of the Commission is to foster unity and reconciliation through a variety of different initiatives. Its mandate includes a) preparing and coordinating the national programs for the promotion of national unity and reconciliation b) putting in place and developing ways to restore and consolidate unity and reconciliation among Rwandans; c) educating and mobilizing the population on matters relating to national unity and reconciliation; d) carrying out research, organizing debates, disseminating ideas and making publications relating to peace, national unity and reconciliation; e) making proposals on measures that can eradicate divisions among Rwandans and to reinforce national unity and reconciliation; d) denouncing and fighting against acts, writings and utterances which are intended to promote any kind of discrimination, intolerance or xenophobia; e) making an annual report and such other reports as may be necessary on the situation of national unity and reconciliation.
The final report was made available and government released a white paper responding to the recommendations.
The Commission was set up to look into the circumstances leading to the incidents of politically-motivated violence in Gendema, Freetown and Kenema, and the spate of intolerance occurring in 2009. The Commission’s terms of reference were: a) to review and determine the circumstances as well as establish the facts relating to (i) incidents of political violence and intolerance that occurred in March 2009 in Gendema (Pujehun District), Freetown (Western Area) and Kenema (Kenema District); (ii) the roles and responsibilities of political parties, law enforcement agencies or other persons or groups in relation to the incidents of political violence and intolerance; b) to make necessary findings or conclusions that shall provide a full understanding of the circumstances that resulted in the incidents; and c) to recommend measures to be taken and mechanisms to be put in place to effectively prevent the occurrence of such incidents in the future.(TOR and final report not available)