Institute for International and
Comparative Law in Africa (ICLA)

Commissions of Inquiries in Africa information

  • Algeria National Commission of Inquiry into the events of spring 2001 in the Kabylia region (2001) +

    Commission announced: 2001
    Commission reported: 2001
    A commission of inquiry tasked with investigating all the events surrounding the bloody riots caused by the killing of 19-year-old Guermah Massinissa in police custody, ascertaining the causes and events leading to the riots and identifying all the casualties and the wounded in the riots and assign responsibility. TORs included in the preliminary report. No final report available.
    Download preliminary report
  • Algeria Ad Hoc Inquiry Commission in Charge of the Question of Disappearance (2003 – 2005) +

    Commission Announced: 20 September 2003
    Commission Reported: 31 March 2005
    The Commission was instituted within the National Consultative Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights to investigate alleged instances of disappearances and determine the fate of the disappeared. Mandated; a) To identify, investigate and determine the fate of people who disappeared between 1992 and 1999. b) To draft a reparations plan for the families of the disappeared. c) Produce a report that establishes the responsibilities of the Algerian state in the forced disappearances of people between 1992 and 1999. d) Identifies cases of alleged disappearances.
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  • Burkina Faso National reconciliation commission. +

    Commission announced: 1999
    Commission reported: 2000
    This commission was established to examine the different economic crimes and violent political crimes that remain unpunished from 1960 to 2000. In addition, the commission was to propose modalities for the implementation of national reconciliation.
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  • Burkina Faso Commission of Inquiry into the death of Norbert Zongo (1999) +

    Commission Announced: `1999
    Commission Reported: 1999
    Commission of Inquiry into the death of Norbert Zongo 1999 was instituted to inquire into the circumstances surrounding the death of investigative journalist Norbert Zongo, who died under suspicious circumstances in 1999.
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  • Burkina Faso Independent Commission of inquiry into the popular uprising of October 30-31 (2014) +

    Commission Announced: 2014
    Commission Reported:
    The Independent Commission of inquiry into the popular uprising of October 30-31 2014 was established by the transitional government to shed light on the causes of deaths and injuries recorded during the popular uprising of 30 and 31 October 2014.
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  • Burkina Faso Commission of National Reconciliation and Reform (2015) +

    Commission Announced: 2015
    Commission Reported: 2015
    Commission of National Reconciliation and Reform is a transitional mechanism instituted to restore and strengthen social cohesion and national unity. Mandated a) To formulate relevant policies and reforms necessary for economic and social development, to establish the best conditions to settle the liabilities of the political and economic management of the state, creating the conditions and frameworks conducive to the manifestation of truth, justice, forgiveness and national reconciliation. b) To restore and strengthen social cohesion and national unity and to "to lay the foundations of a truly democratic society, just, open and inclusive in Burkina Faso, to be effected through five sub-committees on a) truth, justice and national reconciliation, b) constitutional, political and institutional reform c) electoral reform d) public finances and respect for public property and e) media management and information. The functions of the sub-committee on reforms were to be further clarified by a further presidential decree.
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  • Burundi Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2014) +

    Commission Announced: 2014
    Commission Reported: 2014
    Truth and Reconciliation Commission, an independent commission set up by the State to investigate and establish the truth about the serious Human Rights violations committed from 1962 to 2008. The killings to be investigated include mass killings, torture leading to death, enforced disappearances, death in custody, political assassinations.
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  • Central African Republic Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2003) +

    Commission Announced: 2003
    Commission Reported:
    Truth and Reconciliation Commission existed under the broader National Reconciliation Commission. It was tasked with; a) promoting dialogue and reconciliation between different political, social, and religious affiliations. b) to investigate killings include summary executions, unlawful killings, and village burnings. c) Make recommendations to the government
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  • ChadCommission of inquiry into the crimes and misappropriations committed by ex-President Habre, his accomplices
    and/or accessories. (1990)
    +

    Commission Announced: 1990
    Commission Reported: 1992
    Commission of inquiry into the crimes and misappropriations committed by ex-President Habre, his accomplices and/or accessories was instituted to investigate crimes against the physical and mental integrity of the people of Chad and their possessions as committed by ex-president Habre, his accomplices and or/accessories.
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  • Democratic Republic of the CongoTruth and Reconciliation Commission (2003) +

    Commission Announced: 2003
    Commission Reported: 2007
    Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established and mandated to investigate the truth among conflicting versions of history and to promote peace, reparation, and reconciliation.
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  • Democratic Republic of the Congo Commission of inquiry into the Kasai massacres. +

    Commission announced: 2017
    Commission reported: Ongoing
    A commission established to investigate the massacres exacted by the Congolese army in Kasai that led to an estimated 200 casualties.
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  • Egypt Interim Government Commission of Inquiry (2011) +

    Commission Announced: 2011
    Commission Reported: 2011
    Interim Government Commission was set up to investigate the violence perpetrated against the anti-regime demonstrators in the Egyptian revolution of 2011.
    Report not available
  • Ethiopia The Special Prosecution Process in Ethiopia by the Office of the Special Prosecutor (1993) +

    Commission Announced: 1993
    Commission Reported: 1994
    The Special Prosecution Process in Ethiopia by the Office of the Special Prosecutor was instituted by the transitional government of 1992. Its investigation focused on the special prosecution process of war criminals and human rights violators in Ethiopia. It was mandated to; a) to establish for public knowledge and for posterity a historical record of the abuses of the mangiest regime. b) To bring those criminally responsible for human rights violations and/or corruption to justice.
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  • Ethiopia An Inquiry Commission to investigate the disorder occurred in Addis Ababa and in some parts of the country (2005) +

    Commission Announced: 2005
    Commission Reported: 2006
    The Ethiopian Inquiry Commission was established upon the orders of the Ethiopian Parliament to investigate the killings of peaceful protesters in June and November 2005 in Addis Ababa and other parts of the country following the May 2005 elections.
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  • Ghana National Reconciliation Commission (2003) +

    Commission Announced: 2003
    Commission Reported: 2004
    National Reconciliation Commission was established to foster reconciliation in light of the challenges faced in post-colonial Ghana. It was mandated to; a) To establish an accurate and complete historical record of abuses perpetrated against individuals by public institutions and office holders or by individuals purporting to have acted on behalf of the state during periods of unconstitutional rule. b) It was also charged with putting forth recommendations for redress and institutional reform to the president.
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  • Ghana Commission of Inquiry into the Yendi Events (Wuaku Commission) (2002) +

    Commission Announced: 2002
    Commission Reported: 2002
    Commission of Inquiry into the Yendi Events was established and mandated to investigate the Yandi events and identify the perpetrators and make appropriate recommendations to the president.
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  • GuineaGuinea-Conakry: National independent commission of inquiry into the events of 28 September 2009. +

    Commission announced: 2009
    Commission reported: 2010
    A commission established to investigate the violent repression of a protest held at a stadium in Conakry on 28 September 2009. The repression lead to a massacre in which 200 people were killed by the army and hundreds of women and girls were sexually assaulted.
    Download Report
    Final report unavailable.
  • GuineaReflection Commission (2011) +

    (No further information available)
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  • Guinea Bissau National Commission of Inquiry (2009) +

    Commission Announced: 2009
    Commission Reported: 2010
    A commission of inquiry set up by the government to find the motives and culprits behind the political assassinations of the chief of defence staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai, on 1 March 2009 and President Joao Bernardo Nino Vieira, the following day on the 2nd of March 2009.
  • Ivory Coast Mediation Committee for National Reconciliation (1999) +

    Commission Announced: 1999
    Commission Reported: 2000
    Mediation Committee for National Reconciliation was instituted to investigate post-electoral violence in Abidjan that claimed the lives of 171 citizens in October 24-26, 2000.
    The report has not been issued
  • Ivory Coast Dialogue, Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2011) +

    Commission Announced: 2011
    Commission Reported: 2014
    Dialogue, Truth and Reconciliation Commission was a truth seeking platform established to examine the causes of the successive crisis that occurred in Ivory Coast and shed more light on the ensuing grave Human Rights violations, from the advent of the multiparty system to the post-electoral violence (1990 - 2011). Human rights violation to be investigated included; death in detention, political assassinations, mob lynching's, enforced disappearances, mass murders, excessive use of force by State's agents leading to death and torture leading to death.
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  • Ivory Coast National Commission of Inquiry (2011) +

    Commission Announced: 2011
    Commission Reported: 2011
    The National Commission of Inquiry was constituted to carry out investigations on violations of human rights and international humanitarian rights committed anywhere in the country during the post-electoral period between 31 October 2010 - 15 May 2011. Categories of killing included for investigation are; summary executions, enforced and involuntary disappearances, death in custody, torture/cruel and unusual punishment leading to death and infliction of wounds leading to death.
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  • KenyaPresidential Commission of Inquiry into the cult of Devil Worship in Kenya (1994) +

    Commission Announced: 1994
    Commission Reported: 1995
    The Commission was constituted in the wake of a terrible incident of alleged witchcraft activities rampant in Kenyan boarding high schools
    Report not available
  • Kenya Judicial Commission Appointed to Inquire Into Tribal Clashes in Kenya (Akiwumi Commission) (1998) +

    Commission Announced: 1998
    Commission Reported: 1999
    The Commission of inquiry was set up to investigate tribal clashes that have occurred in various parts of Kenya from 1991 with a view to establishing the root causes of these clashes and determine the level of the involvement of law enforcement officials in the clashes and prepare a report with recommendations on who should be held accountable and prosecuted for various acts of violence.
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  • Kenya The Commission of Inquiry on Post Election Violence (CIPEV) (2007) +

    Members: Mr. Justice Philip Waki, Mr. Gavin McFadyen, Mr. Pascal Kambale, Mr. David Majanja and Mr. George Kegoro.
    Commission Announced: 23 May 2007
    Commission Reported: 2008
    The Commission of Inquiry on Post Election Violence (CIPEV) was instituted to investigate the facts and circumstances surrounding the post-election violence and the conduct of state security in their handling of such violence. It was mandated; a) To investigate the facts and circumstances related to the acts of violence following the 2007 presidential elections; b) to investigate the actions or omissions of State security agencies during the course of the violence c) To make specific recommendations on specific measures to be taken to prevent, control, and eradicate similar violence in the future; bring to justice those responsible for criminal acts; eradicate impunity and promote national reconciliation; improve the functioning of security agencies; deal with any other legal, political and administrative matters deemed necessary d) To make such suggestions to the Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission as may be deemed necessary.
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  • Kenya Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission (2009) +

    Commission Announced: 2009
    Commission Reported: 2013
    A commission constituted to investigate gross human rights violations committed by the Kenyan government from independence to the culmination of violence after the 2007 general elections with a view to fostering reconciliation and providing justice for all those whose rights were violated during this time.
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  • Lesotho Commission of Inquiry into the events leading to political disturbances which occurred in Lesotho during the period between
    1st July to 30th Nov. 1998 (2000) +

    Commission Announced: 2000
    Commission Reported: 2000
    A commission of inquiry set up to investigate and analyse the background to political instability and disturbances which occurred in Lesotho during the period between 1 July, 1998 to 30 November, 1998. In addition, the commission was tasked to identify the political parties and the persons who spear-headed and participated in such disturbances, the role played by the bodies or individuals who organised, and/or participated in all activities related to the demonstration before the Royal Palace and to investigate and examine as to whether there was a conspiracy to destabilise and overthrow the lawfully constituted Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho.
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  • Liberia Commission of Inquiry into November 7 2011 election violence (2011) +

    Commission Announced: 2011
    Commission Reported: 2011
    A Special Independent Commission of Inquiry to investigate the disturbances and acts of violence of November 7, 2011.
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  • Liberia Liberia Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2006) +

    Commission Announced: 2006
    Commission Reported: 2009
    Liberia Truth and Reconciliation Commission was mandated to investigate and determine responsibilities to three primary categories of crimes which are 1) egregious domestic crimes 2) gross human rights violations and 3) serious humanitarian law violations.
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  • Malawi Robert Chasowa Commission of Inquiry (2012) +

    Commission Announced: 2012
    Commission Reported: 2012
    This commission of inquiry was established to investigate all aspects surrounding the mysterious death of Robert Chasowa, to inquire into the manner in which the Malawi Police Service handled the investigation of the death and make findings and recommendations.
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  • Malawi Commission of Inquiry into 20-21 July 2011 Protests (2011) +

    Commission Announced: 2011
    Commission Reported: 2012
    A commission of inquiry constituted to investigate the violence that occurred after a civil society protest on 20-21 July 2011 where 20 people were killed and property was damaged. The commission was mandated to investigate, report on the findings and make recommendations.
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  • Morocco National Commission for Truth Justice and Reconciliation (Equity and Reconciliation Commission) (2004) +

    Commission Announced: 2004
    Commission Reported: 2005
    National Commission for Truth Justice and Reconciliation (Equity and Reconciliation Commission) was an investigative body established to highlight the extent of forced disappearances, arbitrary detention, torture experienced by Moroccans between 1956-1999. Also included were investigations on deprivation of the right to life, as a result of unrestrained and inadequate use of state force and coerced exile as well as sexual violence.
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  • NigeriaJudicial Commission for the Investigation of Human Rights Violations 2000-2002 +

    Commission announced: 2000
    Commission reported: 2002
    A brief fact finding body commissioned to establish the facts of Nigeria's human rights past with a view to making further recommendations flowing from the facts alleged and evidence offered. The Commission was initially granted three months to investigate and produce a report. This was eventually extended. Mandate to a) establish the causes, nature and extent of all gross human rights violations in Nigeria between 1966-1988 b) identify who may be held accountable for the human rights violations and determine the motives and effects of such violations c) determine whether these violations were a result of policy or as a result of actions of groups of people d) offer recommendations on measures to be taken to redress past injustices and prevent repetition in the future.

    Download Report
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  • NigeriaJudicial Commission of Inquiry into the conflict in Namu Town, Qua'an Pan Local Government area, Plateau State 2005-2006 +

    Commission announced: 2005
    Commission reported: 2006
    Plateau State Government set up a Judicial Commission of Inquiry to investigate the immediate and remote causes of the conflict with a view to officially resolve the tussle over land ownership. Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • NigeriaRivers State Truth and Reconciliation Commission 2007-2009 +

    Commission announced: 2007
    Commission reported: 2009
    The terms of reference were to investigate the causes, nature and extent of the gross violations of human rights committed in the Niger Delta region and specifically Rivers State from June 2000 to May 2004. It was also tasked with facilitating the provision of amnesty to individuals who fully disclosed the truth of human rights violations they committed and the fates and whereabouts of victims.

    In March 2009, Commission Chair Justice Kayode Eso presented a 571-page report to Governor Amaechi, which has yet to be made public.

  • NigeriaCommission of Inquiry into the conflict in Jos, Plateau State 2009 +

    Commission announced: 2009
    Commission reported: 2009
    Further information outstanding.
    Download report
  • NigeriaCommission of Inquiry (Witchcraft Accusations and Child Rights Abuses) 2011 +

    Commission announced: 2011
    Commission reported: 2011
    The Commission refers to events that took place in 2011. No further information available.
    Download TOR
  • NigeriaThe Sheikh Lemu Commission 2011 +

    Commission announced: 2011
    Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • Nigeria Osun Truth and Reconciliation Commission 2011 +

    Commission announced: 2011
    Commission reported: 2011
    Osun State has been the site of intercommunal and state-sponsored violence, particularly since 1993. When Governor Aregbesola came to power, he vowed to address these issues by establishing the Commission. Its mandate was a) to inquire into the causes and incidents of gross human rights violations and public discontent in the state from June 1st, 2003-2011 and b) to facilitate redress for victims, promote reconciliation, prevent the recurrence of past human rights violations and recommend institutional reforms.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • NigeriaJudicial Commission of Inquiry to investigate the Wukari and Ibi crises. 2013 +

    Commission announced: 2013
    Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • NigeriaRivers State Commission of Inquiry 2015 +

    Commission announced: April 2015
    Commission reported: May 2015
    Set up to investigate politically motivated killings during the 2015 elections. Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
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    Download TOR
  • NigeriaThe Kaduna State Commission 2016 +

    Commission announced: 2016
    It was set up to investigate extra-judicial killings of Shiite Minorities by the Nigerian Army. Further information outstanding.
    Download TOR
  • RwandaNational Unity and Reconciliation Commission 1999-2002 +

    Commission announced: 1999
    Commission reported: 2002

    The aim of the Commission is to foster unity and reconciliation through a variety of different initiatives. Its mandate includes a) preparing and coordinating the national programs for the promotion of national unity and reconciliation b) putting in place and developing ways to restore and consolidate unity and reconciliation among Rwandans; c) educating and mobilizing the population on matters relating to national unity and reconciliation; d) carrying out research, organizing debates, disseminating ideas and making publications relating to peace, national unity and reconciliation; e) making proposals on measures that can eradicate divisions among Rwandans and to reinforce national unity and reconciliation; d) denouncing and fighting against acts, writings and utterances which are intended to promote any kind of discrimination, intolerance or xenophobia; e) making an annual report and such other reports as may be necessary on the situation of national unity and reconciliation.


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  • Sierra LeoneSierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission 2000-2004 +

    Commission announced: 2000
    Commission reported: 2004
    The objects of the Commission were a) to create an impartial historical record of violations and abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law related to the armed conflict in Sierra Leone. The Parliament of Sierra Leone recognized that such a record would form the basis for the task of preventing the recurrence of violence; b) (i) to investigate and report on the causes, nature and extent of the violations and abuses referred to above to the fullest degree possible, including their antecedents, the context in which the violations and abuses occurred, the question of whether those violations and abuses were the result of deliberate planning, policy or authorization by any government, group or individual, and the role of both internal and external factors in the conflict; (ii) to work to help restore the human dignity of victims and promote reconciliation by providing an opportunity for victims to give an account of the violations and abuses suffered and for perpetrators to relate their experiences, and by creating a climate which fosters constructive interchange between victims and perpetrators, giving special attention to the subject of sexual abuses and to the experiences of children within the armed conflict; and (iii) to do all such things as may contribute to the fulfillment of the object of the Commission.
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  • Sierra LeoneCommission of inquiry into the Koidu Holdings disturbances 2008 +

    Commission announced: 2008
    The Commission of Inquiry was set up to investigate and report on the events leading to disturbances at Koidu, Kono District on the 13th December 2007 which resulted in the death of two persons and injuries to a number of other persons. The inquiry was set up to investigate the deaths of two people and injuries of many after clashes of discontent between Koidu Holdings Mining Company and the people of Kono.

    The final report was made available and government released a white paper responding to the recommendations.


    Download TOR

    http://www.sierraleonetrc.org/index.php/view-the-final-report/download-table-of-contents

  • Sierra LeoneCommission of Inquiry into incidents of Political Violence and Intolerance occurring in Gendema, Freetown and Kenema 2009 +

    Commission announced: 2009
    Commission reported: 2009

    The Commission was set up to look into the circumstances leading to the incidents of politically-motivated violence in Gendema, Freetown and Kenema, and the spate of intolerance occurring in 2009. The Commission’s terms of reference were: a) to review and determine the circumstances as well as establish the facts relating to (i) incidents of political violence and intolerance that occurred in March 2009 in Gendema (Pujehun District), Freetown (Western Area) and Kenema (Kenema District); (ii) the roles and responsibilities of political parties, law enforcement agencies or other persons or groups in relation to the incidents of political violence and intolerance; b) to make necessary findings or conclusions that shall provide a full understanding of the circumstances that resulted in the incidents; and c) to recommend measures to be taken and mechanisms to be put in place to effectively prevent the occurrence of such incidents in the future.

    (TOR and final report not available)
  • Sierra LeoneInvestigating panel on the September 9th 2011 incidents in Bo 2011 +

    Commission announced: 2011
    Commission reported: 2011
    Investigative Panel with a two week mandate to look into the stoning of Brig. Rtd. Maada Bio (flag bearer of the Sierra Leone Peoples Party) and the resultant burning down of buildings, shootings, injuries and death. Its mandate was to investigate and provide a report on a) the stoning of Brigadier (Rtd.) Julius Maada Bio; b) the burning down of buildings in Bo; c) the shootings resulting in the death of an individual and the injuries of a number of persons; d) any other related Issues. The aim was to ensure prosecution and also proffer recommendations that could forestall any future occurrence of this nature in any part of the country.

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  • South AfricaCommission of Inquiry into unsolved political murders (Harms Commission) 1990 +

    Commission announced: 1990
    Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • South AfricaCommission of Inquiry Regarding Public Violence and Intimidation (Goldstone Commission) 1991-1993 +

    Commission announced: 1991
    Commission reported: 1993
    The Commission was appointed to investigate political violence and intimidation that occurred between July 1991 and the 1994 general election that ended apartheid in South Africa. The objectives of the Commission were a) to inquire into the phenomenon of public violence and intimidation in the Republic, the nature and causes thereof, and what persons were involved therein; b) inquire into any steps that should be taken in order to prevent public violence and intimidation; and c) to make recommendations to the State President in respect of public violence or intimidation.
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  • South AfricaCommission of Inquiry into Witchcraft Violence and Ritual Murders in the Northern Province 1995-1996 +

    Commission announced: 1995
    Commission reported: 1996
    The department of safety, security and liaison, under the leadership of advocate Seth Nthai, and the office of the Premier, commissioned an inquiry into the spare of killings and witch purging and to establish the root causes and ways of restoring stability in the affected communities. Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • South AfricaThe South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission 1995-1998 +

    Commission announced: 1995
    Commission reported: 1998
    A commission constituted to investigate violations that occurred during apartheid and to offer amnesty and recommendations for reconciliation. To promote national unity and reconciliation in a spirit of understanding which transcends the conflicts and divisions of the past by a) establishing as complete a picture as possible of the causes, nature and extent of the gross violations of human rights which were committed during the period from 1 March 1960 to the cut-off date; b) facilitating the granting of amnesty to persons who make full disclosure of all the relevant facts relating to acts associated with a political objective; c) establishing and making known the fate or whereabouts of victims and by restoring the human and civil dignity of such victims by granting them an opportunity to relate their own accounts of the violations of which they are the victims, and by recommending reparation measures; d) compiling a report providing as comprehensive an account as possible of the activities and findings of the Commission and which contains recommendations of measures to prevent the future violations of human rights; e) to investigate or make recommendations concerning any matter with a view to promoting or achieving national unity and reconciliation within the context of this Act.
    Go to Report
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  • South AfricaThe Independent Commission of Inquiry into police inefficiency in Khayelitsha 2012-2014 +

    Commission announced: 2012
    Commission reported: 2014
    Commission of Inquiry into allegations of police inefficiency in Khayelitsha; oversight and accountability mechanism. The commission was given two years to investigate, collect data and prepare and publish a report on their findings. a) To investigate complaints received by the Premier relating to allegations of inefficiency of SAPS and breakdown of relations between SAPS and Khayelitsha community b) to investigate the reasons for, and causes of, the inefficiency and breakdown in relations, if found to exist c) to prepare a written report containing the findings of the Commission and “recommendations as to how any inefficiency in the delivery of police services, or a breakdown in relations between the community of Khayelitsha and the South African Police Service, as may be found by the commission to exist, may be alleviated or remedied.

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  • South AfricaMarikana Commission of Inquiry (Farlam Commission) 2012-2015 +

    Commission announced: 2012
    Commission reported: 2015
    To investigate matters of public, national and international concern arising out of the tragic incidents at the Lonmin Mine in Marikana in the North West Province from Saturday 11th August to Thursday 16th August 2012 which led to the deaths of approximately 44 people, more than 70 persons being injured, approximately 250 people being arrested and damage and destruction of property. The Commission was to complete its work within four months and submit its final report to the President within one month after completion. This mandate was however extended with the report submitted in 2015. The Commission shall inquire into, make findings, report on and make recommendations concerning a) the conduct of Lonmin Plc; b) the conduct of the South African Police Service; c) the conduct of the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU) and the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM); d) the conduct of individuals and loose groupings in fermenting and/or otherwise promoting a situation of conflict and confrontation which may have given rise to the tragic incident, whether directly or indirectly; e) the role played by the Department of Mineral Resources or any other government department or agency in relation to the incidents.

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  • TanzaniaCommission of Inquiry investigate the violence surrounding demonstrations in Tanzania 2001-2002 +

    Commission announced: 2001Commission reported: 2002
    Further information outstanding.
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  • TogoTogo Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission 2009-2012 +

    Commission announced: 2009
    Commission reported: 2012
    The Commission was set up as a response to the concerns of several Togolese social strata anxious to explain the violence that marred the historical development of Togo, especially during election time; addresses the need to seek ways and means to remove the Togo from the cycles of violence and ensure peace. The time frame was 18 months, renewable once for 6 months. The mandate of the Commission was a) to identify, following investigations, all those responsible for abuses and violations of human rights; b) propose to the Government measures to repair damages suffered by the victims; c) make recommendations to the government on the fate of the perpetrators of the most serious violations of human rights; d) recommend measures to be taken to prevent the repetition of such acts of violence as well as initiatives to fight impunity against and strengthen national reconciliation. The outcomes would be a detailed report that establishes the nature, extent and causes of acts of political violence committed in the past and reconstructs the context of violence.

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  • TunisiaThe Commission of Investigation on Abuse recorded during the period ranging from 17 December 2010 until the fulfillment
    of its purpose. 2011
    +

    Commission announced: 2011
    A commission set up to investigate the abuse and violence committed from the start of the revolution until the end of the transitional period which ended on the 23rd of October 2011. The categories of killings to be investigated include summary executions, death in custody, torture leading to death, preventing the wounded from accessing hospitals leading to their deaths, deaths due to gross negligence by law enforcement, accidental deaths and using live ammunition on unarmed protesters. It has no specific timeframe. The commission was mandated to a) establish all the facts surrounding the human rights violations during that specific time frame; b) present all the information on the specific events and places and the truth surrounding the issue of snipers; c) determine the individual and institutional responsibilities; d) propose recommendations to ensure non-recurrence of violations; e) and produce tables, graphs and list of victims identified by the Commission. The final report should examine the various violations committed during the period covered by the mandate, in particular the repression exercised by the State during the protests, including those violence committed under superior orders and makes recommendations.
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  • TunisiaThe Truth and Dignity Forum 2013 - present +

    Commission announced: 2013
    Commission reported: ongoing
    The Commission’s mandate is to investigate and uncover the truth about violations of human rights committed between 1 July 1955 and 31 December 2013, including murder, death in custody, torture leading to death, enforced disappearance, death penalty with no guarantee of a fair trial and other arbitrary executions. It has a 4 year mandate renewable once for a period of 1 year. The commission is an integrated process of mechanisms which a) identifies human rights abuses committed in the past and correct them by revealing the truth and asking those responsible for such violations to account for their actions b) makes recommendations for prosecution to the Minister of Justice in terms of the National Penal Code, c) aims at compensating victims and restoring their dignity in order to achieve national reconciliation, d) preserving and archiving the collective memory, e) establishing safeguards to ensure that these violations do not happen again, f) enabling the transition from a dictatorship to a democratic regime and contributing to the consecration of Human Rights.
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  • UgandaUganda Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Commission of Inquiry into Violations of Human Rights) 1986-1994 +

    Commission announced: 1986
    Commission reported: 1994
    An investigative body set up to investigate the extent of human rights violations committed in Uganda until Yoweri Museveni came into power. The mandate was very wide, however it concentrated on arbitrary arrests, detentions without trial, torture and murders committed by government security forces and ways of preventing the recurrence of the abuses. The Commission was to inquire into: a) the causes and circumstances surrounding the mass murders and all acts or omissions resulting in the arbitrary deprivation of human life, arbitrary arrests and other abuses of power, including torture, committed in various parts of Uganda; b) the manner in which the law enforcement agents and the state security agencies executed their functions, the extent to which the practices and procedures employed in the execution of such functions may have violated the human rights of any person and the extent to which the state security agencies may have interfered with the functioning of the law-enforcement agents; c) the causes and circumstances surrounding the massive displacement of persons and expulsion of people including Uganda citizens from Uganda and the consequent disappearance or presumed death of some; d) the subjection of any person to discriminatory treatment by any person acting under any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or public authority or the denial of any other fundamental freedoms and rights and e) any other connected matters.

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  • UgandaJudicial Commission of Inquiry into Mass Murder at Kanungu 2000 +

    Commission announced: 2000
    A commission of inquiry to probe the mysterious murder of hundreds of people including children by a Millennium doomsday cult at Kanungu, southwestern Uganda. The Commission is tasked to define a cult, establish what happened at Kanungu and the perpetrators of the murders, establish if there was any laxity on the part of any Government department and recommend ways of avoiding future recurrences. They are also expected to identify similar groups and recommend ways of dealing with them.
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  • ZambiaCommission of inquiry investigating 1997 coup attempt and government torture 1998-2001 +

    Commission announced: 1998
    Commission reported: 2001
    Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • ZambiaTruth Commission 1998-2000 +

    Commission announced: 1998
    Commission reported: 2000
    A commission aimed at recovering the truth behind the 1997 coup attempt and subsequent government torture of those involved. Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • ZambiaCommission of Inquiry on the Barotseland agreement of 1964 (2011) +

    Commission announced: 2011
    Commission reported: report was never released
    Further information outstanding.
    (TOR and final report not available)
  • ZambiaCommission of inquiry to investigate human rights violations by past governments (Munyama Commission) 1993-1995 +

    Commission announced: 1993
    Commission reported: 1995
    Commission instituted to investigate and establish the nature and extent of human rights violations from 1972 to 1993 in the republic of Zambia. The nature of killings include extrajudicial executions, death in detention and death as a result of torture. Its mandate was to investigate and establish violations of human rights during the Second Republic years (1972 to 1991) as well as violations that occurred in the Third Republic after October 30, 1991 when the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) came to power.
    The report was handed over to government. It is available in hard copy direct from the national gazette, alongside the white paper response to the commission.
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  • ZimbabweNational Peace and Reconciliation Commission 2013 +

    Commission announced: 2013
    Commission reported: annually
    A commission set up to deal with the violence that plagued Zimbabwe, ensure post- conflict justice and promote national peace and cohesion. Its timeframe is 10 years. The commission’s purpose is to support democracy in Zimbabwe by strengthening people’s basic rights and democratic values, promoting respect for the Constitution by everyone, promoting open government, transparency and accountability and correcting injustices. This commission's mandate is a) to ensure post-conflict justice, healing and reconciliation; b) to develop and implement national programs to promote national healing, unity, cohesion and peaceful resolution of disputes; c) to bring about national reconciliation by encouraging people to tell the truth about the past, facilitating the making of amends and the provision of justice; d) to develop procedures and institutions at a national levels to facilitate dialogue among political parties, communities and other groups, in order to prevent disputes and conflicts from arising in the future; e) to develop programs to ensure that the people that were prosecuted or tortured in the past received rehabilitative treatment and support; f) to conciliate and mediate disputes among communities, organisations, groups and individuals; g) to develop mechanism to ensure early detection of future conflicts and disputes and take preventative measures; h) to receive, consider and take action on the complaints received from the public.
  • Equatorial Guinea National Commission of Inquiry +

    There is no evidence of this commission having existed. The only commission pertaining to the 2009 massacres in Equatorial Guinea was an international commission instituted by the UN.
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